• Jogiya (Early morning)

    Deriving its name from the word yogi (saint), Jogiya is sung at dawn and evokes a serious and contemplative mood. The note Ga (3rd note) is absent, and notes Re and Dha are komal in nature (flattened 2nd and 6th notes).

    Track Information : Sursingar recital in Raga Jogiya.
    Performer(s) : Radhika Mohan Maitra
    Collection : Jonathan Barlow

    Bhatiyar (Early morning)

    Bhatiyar’s melodic movement represents the fading of the night as the new day arrives. Sung early in the morning, Bhatiyar consists of all seven notes – both shuddha and tivra Ma (pure and flattened 4th note) and komal Re (flattened 2nd note).

    Track Information : Vocal rendition of Raga Bhatiyar.
    Performer(s) : Sharafat Hussain Khan
    Collection : Bindu Prasad

    Ahir Bhairav (Early morning)

    A form of raga Bhairav, Ahir Bhairav evokes a meditative mood and is performed early in the morning. It consists of all seven notes - while it has komal Re (flattened 2nd note) reminiscent of raga Bhairav, it also has komal Ni (flattened 7th note), a reflection of its association with raga Kafi.

    Track Information : Santoor recital in Raga Ahir Bhairav.
    Performer(s) : Dulal Roy
    Collection : Gert Wegner

    Todi (Morning)

    In musical treatises Todi is described as a beautiful, young maiden holding a vina and charming one and all with her song. Todi, which is performed in the morning, consists of all seven notes: Re, Ga, and Dha komal (flattened 2nd, 3rd, and 6th notes) and Ma tivra (sharpened 4th note).

    Track Information : Vocal rendition of Raga Todi.
    Performer(s) : Vatsalabai Joshi
    Collection : Warren Senders
  • Komal Re Asavari (Late morning)

    Asavari is described as being a melancholic raga. The traditional picture of Asavari is of a female snake-charmer sitting atop a mountain. Scholars believe that Asavari evolved from a local melody, probably from a tribe worshipping the naga (snake) as its deity. Asavari is performed in the late morning. The raga employs all seven notes and Ga, Dha, and Ni (3rd, 6th, and 7th notes) are komal (flattened). In raga Komal Re Asavari, the 2nd note, Re, is also komal, placing the raga closer to Bhairav.

    Track Information : Vocal rendition of Raga Komal Re Asavari.
    Performer(s) : Gangubai Hangal and Krishna Hangal
    Collection : Warren Senders

    Alhaiya Bilawal (Late morning)

    Alhaiya Bilawal evolved from the ancient raga Velavali and is picturised as a woman adorning herself for her lover. Performed during the late morning period, the raga employs all seven notes of the scale in their shuddha (pure) form and its melodies are embellished with the slight use of komal Ni (flattened 7th note).

    Track Information : Vocal (dhrupad) rendition of Raga Alhaiya Bilawal.
    Performer(s) : Vidur Mallick
    Collection : Peter Muller

    Bhairavi - Surnaiya Langa

    Bhairavi is associated with the morning in the musical tradition of the Langas and Manganiars. There are also variations of the raga, such as the Sindhi Bhairavi, common in the Barmer and Jaisalmer region bordering Sindh.

    Performer(s) : Karim Khan, Murad Khan, Ramzan Khan
    Collection : ARCE Archives and Community Partnership

    Bhairavi (Late morning)

    Popularly picturised as a consort of raga Bhairav, Bhairavi is performed to evoke a serious, contemplative, and, at times, melancholic mood. Bhairavi belongs to the late morning however, it is also played at the end of night towards the early morning or to denote the end of a performance. Bhairavi consists of all seven notes- Re, Ga, Dha, and Ni are komal (flattened 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th notes).

    Track Information : Vocal rendition of Raga Bhairavi.
    Performer(s) : Faiyaz Khan & M.K Pandit
    Collection : James Stevenson
  • Jaunpuri (Late Morning)

    While some hold that Jaunpuri evolved from the ancient raga Gandhari, others believe it was created at the court of Sultan Hussain Sharqi of Jaunpur in the mid-fifteenth century. Performed in the late morning period, Jaunpuri consists of all seven notes - Ga, Dha, and Ni are komal (flattened 3rd, 6th, and 7th notes).

    Track Information : Sarod recital in Raga Jaunpuri.
    Performer(s) : Radhika Mohan Moitra
    Collection : Jonathan Barlow