• Bahar (Early night)

    Amir Khusrau (d. 1325), the renowned Sufi musician and poet, is believed to have created Raga Bahar. Bahar, a Persian word for spring, has many lyrical compositions celebrating the beauty and joy that is evoked during the spring season.

    Track Information : Vocal rendition in Raga Bahar.
    Performer(s) : Pt. Jasraj
    Collection : Brajraj Singh

    Shankara (Late night)

    Shankara consists of all the notes in their shuddha (pure) form except Ma (4th note) which is absent from the raga. Performed at night, Shankara, an epithet of Lord Shiva, evokes a serious and dignified mood.

    Track Information : Sitar recital in Raga Shankara.
    Performer(s) : Vilayat Khan
    Collection : Sharon Lowen

    Kafi (Late night)

    Kafi is said to have been adapted from local melodies, probably of the kafi genre of western India, and is first mentioned in a music treatise from the fifteenth century. Kafi is performed late at night and consists of all seven notes in their shuddha (pure) form except Ga and Ni (3rd and 7th notes) which are both komal (flattened).

    Track Information : Vocal rendition of Raga Kafi.
    Performer(s) : Bhimsen Joshi
    Collection : Akhilesh Mittal

    Rag Sorath - Manganiar

    Rag Sorath of the Manganiars is associated with the late night - around the midnight hour. Sorath is a rag beloved in the area, and there are many ‘duhas’ (couplets) that extol its beauty. Its name suggests Saurashtra as its origin, and it is one of the rags that are among the ‘sur’s of Shah Abdul Latif.

    Track Information : 'Undo Undo Gaje'- A song about the rains and parched earth in Rag Sorath.
    Performer(s) : Gazi Khan (Vocal), Chanan Khan (Vocal and Khamaicha), Multan Khan (Vocal)
    Collection : ARCE Archives and Community Partnership
  • Maru Bihag (Night)

    A form of raga Bihag, Maru Bihag is performed at night. It consists of all seven notes - both shuddha and tivra Ma (pure and sharpened 4th note).

    Track Information : Vocal rendition of Raga Maru Bihag.
    Performer(s) : Bhimsen Joshi
    Collection : Akhilesh Mittal

    Darbari Kanada (Midnight)

    Believed to be created by Miyan Tansen for the pleasure of Mughal Emperor Akbar (1556-1605), Darbari Kanada is performed at midnight in a dignified and majestic manner.

    Track Information : Vocal rendition of Raga Darbari Kanada.
    Performer(s) : Sharafat Hussain Khan
    Collection : Bindu Prasad

    Malkauns (Midnight)

    Malkauns, referred to as Malava kaushika in medieval music treatises, is a pentatonic raga, performed at midnight to evoke a serious and contemplative mood. The raga is popularly picturised as a King being attended to by his female companions.